How does MCU control each hardware?

How does MCU control each hardware?

What is MCU?
MCU is an integrated circuit, a chip-sized microcomputer.
MCU integrates CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports, interrupt system, timer/counter.
Some kinds of MCU also contain display driver circuit, pulse width modulation circuit, analog multiplexer, A/D converter, etc.

Advantages of MCU:
High integration, small size, high cost performance, strong control function, fast computing speed, low running power.

MCU application field:
Industrial control, automation, mechanical and electrical equipment, military, aerospace, automotive electronics, medical equipment, computer communications, home appliances, intelligent electronic products, real-time control, etc.

MCU development language:
C language, assembly language, Python, Blockly, Arduino, BASIC.

MCU development software:
Keil: Write and compile programs, simulation.
Notepad++: Write and modify programs.
Altium Designer: Draw schematics and PCB.
Sscom: serial port debugging.
Download tools: Different brands have different download tools.

51 MCU:
51 MCU are those compatible with Intel 8051 instruction system.
Intel: 80C31, 80C51, 87C51, 80C32, 80C52, 87C52;
Atmel: 89C51, 89C52, 89C2051, 89S51(RC), 89S52(RC);
Philips, Winbond, Dallas, Siemens;
STC: STC89C51, STC90C51, STC11, STC15, STC8.

STM32 is an ARM Cortex-M microcontroller developed by STMicroelectronics.
High performance, low cost, low power consumption.
STM32F0, STM32F1, STM32F3, STM32L0, STM32L1, STM32L4+, STM32F2, STM32F4, STM32F7, STM32H7, etc.
In the past, there are many different kinds of MCU such as PIC, NXP, TI, Atmel, Freescale, Renesas and so on.
However, there are many difficulties for developers like:
Datasheets are hard to find;
Only English and incomplete;
Development board and debugger are expensive;
Hard to consult official staffs.
Then, ST launched 32-bit Cortex-M3 MCU.
With standard library, cheap development board and debugger, complete models to meet the needs of more developers, STM32 microcontroller become more and more popular.

How does MCU control each hardware?
1. According to the needs of the product and the specification of the MCU, write a program to tell the MCU what to do;
2. Input signal;
3. According to the program, MCU processes signal then output;
4. Output signal;
5. Peripheral hardware receives signal and executes;
6. Device works.
With richer input interface, the input mode can be more complex;
With better performance MCU, you can run more complex program;
With specific I/O devices, you can get specific functions.

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